Educational genres

Clinical textbook


University student


Anatomy of the stomach



Source Text in English
The luminal surface of the gastric wall forms thick, longitudinally oriented folds or rugae, which flatten with distention. Four layers make up the gastric wall: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria, and serosa. Mucosa lines the gastric lumen, appearing as a smooth, velvety, blood-filled lining. The mucosa of the cardia, antrum, and pylorus is somewhat paler than that of the fundus and body. It is within the gastric mucosa that most of the functional secretory elements of the stomach are located. The submucosa, immediately deep to the mucosa, provides the dense connective tissue skeleton of collagen and elastin fibers. Lymphocytes, plasma cells, arterioles, venules, lymphatics, and the submucosal plexus are also contained within the submucosa.
Target Text in Spanish
La superficie luminal de la pared gástrica forma pliegues o rugosidades gruesas y longitudinales, que se aplanan con la distensión del estómago. La pared gástrica se compone de cuatro capas: la mucosa, la submucosa, la muscular y la serosa. La mucosa tapiza la luz gástrica y forma un revestimiento liso, sedoso y rosáceo. La mucosa del cardias, el antro y el píloro es algo más pálida que la del fondo y el cuerpo. En la mucosa gástrica se encuentra la mayor parte de los elementos con función secretora del estómago. En la profundidad inmediata de la mucosa se sitúa la submucosa, que forma una estructura de tejido conjuntivo denso compuesta por fibras de colágeno y elastina. La submucosa también contiene linfocitos, células plasmáticas, arteriolas, vénulas, vasos linfáticos y el plexo submucoso.

Pre-text and post-text

Discerning the internal threading of the text makes it easier to make decisions when faced with complex terms. The greater pallor of the mucosa of the cardia, antrum and pylorus compared to that of the fundus and body establishes an appearance-based comparison. For this reason, the adjective “blood-filled” is not describing the degree of vascularisation, but a more intense colour.

Anatomical locations

In anatomy texts, the location of an anatomical structure is expressed by indicating its relationship to other structures. Here, the submucosa is said to be located further away from the surface with respect to the mucosa (i.e. in a deeper location), bearing in mind that the author takes the lumen as the most superficial point.


Some terminological choices can greatly detract from the reading experience. The bone reference of “skeleton” to describe a web of connective tissue is understandable, but creates a mismatch with the reader's expectations. Using a more discreet term such as “estructura” eliminates these unwanted nuances.

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